If the Internet of Things, or IoT, is to be useful, then IoT devices need to have the ability to communicate with each other over long distances
Most of us are familiar with Bluetooth headphones which we use with our cellular devices. While the communication between the Bluetooth device and the cellular device is limited to a few feet, it is the cellular device, in turn, that maintains the connection with the long-range telecommunications network.
These “last mile”—or more accurately, “last feet” radio devices need to be changed frequently since the radio in each device needs a considerable amount of power in order to be able to transmit and receive information at a respectable range. The trade-off that designers of these devices have always faced is been between battery life and device range. The longer the range you want, the more power your device needs—and the more frequently it needs to be recharged.